DESDE EL MINISTERIO DE SALUD, SE DIFUNDEN RECAUDOS ANTE CASOS DE GASTROENTERITIS
Debido a la detección de varios casos de personas con gastroenteritis de origen viral, desde el Programa de Epidemiología del Ministerio de Salud pidieron ciertos recaudos a la población.
“Habíamos percibido un aumento de diarreas y vómitos y emitimos una alerta interna. Cuando hacemos un comunicado es para la población, las alertas son hacia adentro del sistema de salud, el sentido de esta alerta en particular nos permite a nosotros saber qué hacer y cómo hacerlo”, detalló Rodrigo Verdugo, jefe de Programa Epidemiología.
Entre las principales medidas, se recomienda el lavado de manos con agua y jabón en forma frecuente, tanto en el domicilio como en lugares de trabajo y durante las actividades recreativas.
También, reforzar la higiene en baños, incluyendo canillas, picaportes de puertas y botones de los inodoros y extremar la limpieza de la cocina y todo elemento que entre en contacto con alimentos. Utilizar lavandina diluida en agua a razón de 1 parte de lavandina en 9 partes de agua (ej, 100 cc. de lavandina en 900 cc. de agua).
En cuanto al consumo de agua, desde Salud pidieron que sea, preferentemente, de red, envasada o potabilizada con una gota de lavandina por litro.
Entre otras recomendaciones, pidieron lo siguiente: ventilar frecuentemente los ambientes y ante la aparición de vómitos reiterados, consultar al médico. No esperar a tener sed para consumir líquidos, de esta manera, evitamos la deshidratación.
Los síntomas de la gastroenteritis suelen ser una combinación de vómitos, diarrea, calambres (cólicos) abdominales, fiebre e inapetencia. Los virus provocan diarrea acuosa. Las heces casi nunca contienen mucosidad o sangre.
En lactantes y niños muy pequeños, el rotavirus puede durar entre 5 y 7 días. La mayoría de los niños sufren vómitos, y algunos tienen fiebre. La diarrea es acuosa, pero no contiene sangre. En los niños, la diarrea es una causa probable de deshidratación grave e incluso de muerte.
El norovirus provoca más vómitos que diarrea en niños y dura solo de 1 a 2 días. Los niños sufren cólicos abdominales y pueden tener fiebre, dolor de cabeza y dolores musculares.
El adenovirus causa vómitos leves de 1 a 2 días después del inicio de la diarrea, puede durar de 1 a 2 semanas.
Los síntomas del astrovirus son similares a los de una infección leve por rotavirus.
Es probable que las bacterias causen fiebre y diarrea con sangre y algunos tipos causan cólicos abdominales. Ciertos tipos de bacterias, como algunas cepas de E. coli y Shigella, producen toxinas que pueden causar una complicación llamada síndrome hemolítico-urémico, que puede causar anemia grave y lesión renal aguda.
Gastroenteritis causada por parásitos
Los parásitos suelen causar una diarrea que puede durar mucho tiempo y pueden provocar diarrea intermitente. La diarrea es, por lo general, sin sangre. Cuando el niño sufre una diarrea persistente causada por una infección parasitaria puede estar muy cansado y perder peso.
Complicaciones de la gastroenteritis
La complicación más frecuente de la gastroenteritis grave es la deshidratación (cantidad insuficiente de líquido en el cuerpo), que se produce por la pérdida de una gran cantidad de líquidos a través de los vómitos y las heces. Los niños con deshidratación leve tienen sed, pero los gravemente deshidratados están apáticos, irritables o adormilados (aletargados).
Los lactantes son mucho más propensos que los niños mayores a deshidratarse y desarrollar complicaciones graves. Los lactantes que están deshidratados precisan atención médica inmediata.
Las señales de peligro de deshidratación en los lactantes que requieren atención médica inmediata son las siguientes:
Si la zona blanda de la parte superior de la cabeza (fontanela) está hundida.
Si tienen los ojos hundidos.
Lloran sin lágrimas.
La boca está seca.
Su producción de orina es escasa.
Si han reducido el estado de alerta y la energía (letargo).
Sin embargo, puede ser difícil estimar la diuresis en los niños que usan pañales y que están teniendo evacuaciones acuosas frecuentes. Es más fácil identificar una disminución del paso de orina (diuresis) y una sed excesiva en los niños mayores.
Generalmente, el diagnóstico de gastroenteritis es obvio solo por los síntomas, pero su causa no suele serlo. A veces, otros miembros de la familia han estado recientemente enfermos con síntomas similares. En otros casos, la gastroenteritis puede provenir de aguas contaminadas o alimentos cocinados inadecuadamente, estropeados o contaminados, como puede ocurrir con los mariscos crudos o la mayonesa dejada fuera de la nevera demasiado tiempo. Los viajes recientes, especialmente, a ciertos países donde la probabilidad de la infección es mayor, y el uso reciente de antibióticos también pueden proporcionar a los médicos algunas pistas sobre la causa.
Por lo general, no se requieren pruebas diagnósticas, ya que la mayoría de las formas de gastroenteritis se resuelven en poco tiempo. Sin embargo, si los síntomas son intensos o duran más de 48 horas, pueden examinarse muestras de heces en el laboratorio para valorar la presencia de glóbulos blancos (leucocitos) y de bacterias, virus o parásitos. También se pueden hacer análisis de sangre para detectar signos de complicaciones.
Se debe enseñar a los niños con edad suficiente a lavarse las manos y evitar alimentos almacenados de forma inadecuada y agua contaminada. Una buena recomendación general es mantener fríos los alimentos que se consumen fríos y calientes los que se consumen calientes. La comida preparada para su consumo se debe ingerir en el intervalo de una hora.
La lactancia materna es otra manera simple y eficaz de ayudar a prevenir la gastroenteritis en los lactantes. Los lactantes alimentados con lactancia materna presentan tasas significativamente más bajas de gastroenteritis en comparación con los lactantes alimentados con fórmula.
Los cuidadores de lactantes alimentados con biberón deben lavarse bien las manos con agua y jabón antes de prepararlos. Los cuidadores también deben lavarse a fondo las manos después de cambiar pañales.
Las áreas de cambio de pañales deben ser desinfectadas regularmente con una solución de lejía de uso doméstico recién preparada (¼ de taza de lejía diluida en unos 4 litros de agua).
Los niños con diarrea no deberían asistir a la guardería hasta la desaparición de los síntomas. Los niños infectados con Shigella o E. coli que causa diarrea con sangre deben tener 2 análisis de heces con resultados negativos antes de reincorporarse al centro.
Los padres contribuyen a evitar la deshidratación animando a su hijo a beber líquidos, aunque sea en cantidades pequeñas pero frecuentes.
Los padres pueden prevenir enfermedades transmitidas por aguas recreativas al no permitir a sus hijos nadar en aguas públicas si tienen diarrea. Si el niño usa pañales, estos se deben revisar con frecuencia para ver si contienen heces y se deben cambiar en un área que no esté cerca del agua. Los padres deben enseñar a sus hijos a evitar tragar agua cuando nadan.
Fuente: Prensa Ministerio de Salud.
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